synergy_biology

NEUROFEEDBACK LOOP
Neurofeedback loop is a type of biofeedback that measures brain waves or brain blood flow to produce a signal that can be used as feedback on brain activity to teach self-regulation. Feedback is commonly provided using video or sound, with positive feedback for desired brain activity and negative feedback for brain activity that is undesirable. Bio(nevro)feedback loop can speed up self-change via mutual influence brain-environment that enhances or inhibits the primary psychological / mental state.
Research shows neurofeedback can be an effective intervention for a range of brain-related conditions. Neurofeedback is regularly used worldwide to help patients with various conditions, e.g. addiction, ADHD, aggression, anxiety, autism, depression, epilepsy, headaches, insomnia, Tourette syndrome, brain damage from stroke, TBI and other causes.

NEUROPLASTICITY
Your brain has the innate ability to physically change itself when faced with new, challenging experiences. This ability is called neuroplasticity. Signals travel in specific neural pathways which determines your thoughts, emotions, etc. Pathways that you use regularly grow stronger. Every task you do relies on a different neural pathway. Neuroplasticity is your brain’s ability to create new neural pathways and reshape existing ones, even as an adult. If methodically approached, this reorganization can make your brain faster and more efficient at performing. Novel challenges force your brain to work in new ways, as your brain can no longer depend on old habits — it must remodel its existing circuitry and build new pathways for information processing. Neuroplasticity is an activity dependent brain’s self-changing mechanism that is also conditioned on self-preserving nature of neurons.

MIRROR NEURONS
Mirror neuron is a neuron that fires both when an animal acts and when the animal observes the same action performed by another. Thus, the neuron “mirrors” the behavior of the other, as though the observer were itself acting. Such neurons have been directly observed in primate and other species including birds. In humans, brain activity consistent with that of mirror neurons has been found in the premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area, the primary somatosensory cortex and the inferior parietal cortex.
The function of the mirror system is still a subject of much speculation. Many researchers consider that this system provides the physiological mechanism for the perception/action coupling. They argue that mirror neurons may be important for understanding the actions and intentions of other people, and for learning new skills by imitation. Some researchers also speculate that mirror systems may simulate observed actions, and thus contribute to theory of mind skills, while others relate mirror neurons to language abilities. One study found that mirror neurons could discern if another person who was picking up a cup of tea planned to drink from it or clear it from the table. In addition, they argued that mirror neurons are the neural basis of the human capacity for emotions such as empathy (Iacoboni et al., 2005).

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